4: Fundamentals

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The Solution tackles the following questions:

What are the 4 fundamental laws of logic?
What is the difference between inductive and deductive logic?
What role does emotion play in the critical thinking process?
What is the difference between persuasion and manipulation?

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1. What are the 4 fundamental laws of logic?
a) The law of (non-)contradiction: A cannot be A and not-A at the same time. What this means is that a statement cannot be true and false at the same time. For instance, it cannot be raining and not raining at the same time.
b) The law of identity: everything is what it is. A is A, that is, identical with A. A=A. If any statement is true, then it is true.
c) The law of the excluded middle: A is either A or not A. A cannot equal non A or be non A.
d) The law of sufficient reason or rational inference: there should be sufficient reason for all that happens. For instance, if the ground is wet, it must be due to fluid coming into contact with it.

2. What is the difference between inductive and deductive logic?
a) In logic deduction is inference in which a conclusion follows necessarily from one or more given premises. Deduction argues from the universal to the particular. For instance, all X are Y, D is X therefore D is Y.
b) Induction takes a number of observed particular facts and derives from them ..

Solution Summary

Does logic have fundamental laws, if it does, what are they? What is the role of emotions in critical thinking? Is there a difference between deductive and inductive logic? How does one know the difference between persuasion and manipulation?

These are some of the issues this post addresses.

It's not just the machine that makes great coffee. The 'four fundamentals' of proportion, grind, water and freshness are even more important.

Armed with a little coffee knowledge, you can create great coffee with a coffee press, home brewer or espresso machine.

Proportion

Use the right proportion of coffee to water – this is the most important step in making great coffee. For the most flavorful cup, we recommend 10 grams of coffee for every 180 milliliters of water. If coffee brewed this way is too strong for your taste, you can add a little hot water to your cup of brewed coffee.

Use 10 grams of coffee for 180 milliliters of water. Two tablespoons equals roughly to 10 grams.

Grind

Different brewing methods have different grind requirements, but in general – the shorter the brew time, the finer the grind. For example, coffee ground for an espresso machine should be very fine, because the brew cycle is only 18-23 seconds long. But for a coffee press, the coffee should be ground coarsely, because the water and coffee are in direct contact for four minutes.

  • Espresso machines: Fine grind
  • Drip coffee makers: Medium grind
  • Coffee press: Coarse grind

The shorter the brew time, the finer the grind.

Water

4: Fundamentals

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A cup of coffee is 98 percent water. Best mac address changer app for android. So the water you use to make coffee should taste clean, fresh, and free of impurities. Water heated to just off a boil (90° to 96° C) is perfect for extracting the coffee’s full range of flavors. Any cooler and the water can’t adequately do the job.

Clean water, better coffee.

Freshness

Coffee is fresh produce, and its enemies are oxygen, light, heat, and moisture. To keep coffee fresh, store it in an opaque, airtight container at room temperature. You can store it that way for up to a week. For the best results, coffee should be ground just before brewing.

Logic

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Fresh coffee is less than one week old.

4 Fundamentals