Introscope Workstation Images For Mac

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Aperio ImageScope by Aperio Technologies is a piece of software that allows you to view medial images captured with an anatomic pathology scanner. Sadly, Aperio ImageScope for Mac is not available for download, but, there are several alternative apps that can be used to view medical images on Mac.

Recommendations for your start in imaging on the Mac

  1. A single VMDK image will work for both VMware & VirtualBox. However, creating the macOS Big Sur image for virtual machines is somehow difficult for the newbie. We have created VMware and VirtualBox image and successfully uploaded on Google Drive and MediaFire in order to prevent virus and malware. Head over towards the below sections.
  2. Supports thousands of pre-built container images, as well as building custom images from standard Dockerfiles. Graphics Engine Enhancements for Windows and Linux Workstation 16 now provides a DirectX 11 and OpenGL 4.1 compliant virtual graphics device to Windows virtual machines, adding new compatibility for hundreds of apps and games.
  3. Application monitoring tools ensure that applications, systems and networks perform at levels that deliver on business outcomes and positive customer experiences.
  4. These pre-patched images are for 'educational purposes' only, to show that the Mac OS can be installed on a virtual machine. I have installed Mac OS Tiger to see what would happen, and the performance is rather unimpressive, even if you have a very fast host computer.

There's a few things that need to be covered here as a starting point. I make some assumptions that you’re familiar with Astronomy, possibly already have a first telescope, and are ready to start taking some images. First you have to make a decision as to whether you want to take photos of the planets and Moon, or if you want to take photos of nebula, star clusters, or galaxies. Basically, the decision between planetary, or deep space objects. These things are not exclusive to each other, and can be done with the same telescope but the results might not be optimal for each choice. Your telescope is probably suited to one or the other. (Edit: If you’re just getting into the hobby, have a look at this article on 5 things to consider if you’re interested in astrophotography.)

Planetary imaging on the Mac

Planetary is fairly straight forward. Large aperture scopes like 6' and above are great for this, and you don't need to have an equatorial mount. Any Alt/Az (Altitude Azimuth) mount will work. A high speed web cam or astro camera and Mac laptop are the only additional entry level hardware requirements. Since most planets are relatively small, the larger the scope, the closer/larger they will look, and the more detail you can get out of your images.

Recommended starting software for planetary imaging:

  • OACapture - for taking pictures or videos: free

  • SiriL - for stacking planetary images: free

  • PixInsight - for processing your planetary images to get the most detail out of them: $230 EUR

Unfortunately planetary processing software is a gap right now on the Mac. You need wavelet processing to get the most detail out of your images, and currently PixInsight is the only real option. There are two other apps that might run on older hardware and operating systems (Lynkeos and Keiths Image stacker), but they're not developed any longer, and crash often on modern hardware. They are however, free applications.

For more advanced options, you might switch out Planetary Imager for FireCapture.

Deep sky object imaging on the Mac

DSO imaging requires a little more effort. Because this type of imaging focuses on long exposure shots, where tracking your object across the sky accurately is a requirement, you'll need a German Equatorial Mount (GEM). These deep sky objects can vary greatly in size, with a large number of them being bigger than earth's moon in the night sky. Because of this, a large scope isn't a requirement to get started. In fact, it's preferable to start with a smaller scope, like an 80mm refractor. The reason for this is that the larger your scope, the more accurate your tracking needs to be, the better your mount needs to be to handle the weight and accuracy. The difficulty (and cost) goes up exponentially with larger telescopes. So start small. All of the telescopes I use are relatively small (under 6' in size), and all fit on my entry level GEM mount, the Advanced VX by Celestron.

Additional requirements are going to be a guiding camera and guide scope. This is essentially a small telescope mounted on top of your main scope, with a guide camera. This camera's job is to watch the star movement, and send corrections to your GEM mount when the mount isn't moving accurately. For entry level equipment, this is a necessity, as these mounts are far from accurate for long exposure imaging.

You'll also need a main imaging camera, and your options vary widely here. You have the option of using a DSLR (maybe you have one already in your possession), or a dedicated astrophotography camera that can do color or mono. Mono is a black and white camera, that when combined with color filters, can achieve a higher fidelity color image than a regular color camera can but with more effort and expense.

Recommended starting software for deep sky imaging:

  • Cloudmakers Astro Imager - for taking pictures with an astronomy camera: $21.99

  • Cloudmakers AstroDSLR - for taking pictures with a DSLR camera: $21.99

  • PHD2 - Guiding software for your guide scope and camera: Free

  • Astro Pixel Processor - Processing software for your images. $50/year, or $125 to purchase outright.

For more advanced options you might switch out Astro Imager for EKOS. And Astro Pixel Processor for PixInsight, or Star Tools.

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See also SAP Note 1306843 for a reference on information to be provided when you open a support case.

Information to be provided for Support Messages

The following items are required for support messages:

  • Version of software component LM-SERVICE on Solution Manager Java stack
  • Version of component ST on Solution Manager ABAP stack
  • http Remote connection (if not conflicting with company policy) to
    • Solution Manager Java stack
    • Solution Manager ABAP stack
    • Introscope Webview
  • credentials (in Secure Area) for a user with admin permission
  • Log files from component with problems (EM, agent, ..)
  • Screenshots of the problem (if this makes sense)


The mapping between Introscope versions and SAP versions of the Introscope delivery is as follows:

  • Introscope follows a versioning scheme consisting of four parts: major.minor.servicepack.patchlevel, e.g.
  • SAP has a versioning scheme consisting of three parts: version SP supportpackage Patch patchlevel.
  • The mapping is defined as follows for recent versions:
    • Introscope major plus minor is mapped to SAP version
    • Introscope servicepack is mapped to SAP supportpackage
    • Introscope patchlevel is not mapped to SAP patchlevel but counted up stating from 0. Exact mapping you find in Introscope Release Notes.
  • Examples
    • maps to 10.5 SP2 Patch 0
    • maps to 10.5 SP2 Patch 1
  • Exceptions
    • old Introscope maps to 8 SP24 Patch 0 respectively maps to 8 SP25 Patch 0

Additional Information to be provided for EM Problems

  1. Description of the problem
    • What kind of problem (slow Workstation / Webview, gaps in line chart, MoM losing connection to collectors, ..)?
    • Screenshot of the problem (e.g. from Workstation / Webview screens)
    • Reoccurrence: periodically, occasionally,
    • Reproducible? If yes, how to reproduce?
  2. Time range
    • When did the problem start occurring?
    • Did the problem disappear without any action? If yes, when did it disappear?
  3. Thread dumps
    • if you observe any kind of hang / crash situation trigger a series of thread dumps for the MoM at least, if possible also for the collectors. See below for details on triggering thread dumps.
  4. Log files
    • Provide a complete set of log files (full contents of /logs folder) for MoM and all collectors. The log files must cover the time range when the problem occurred. Thread dumps will also arrive in the logs folder (em.log / EMService.log)
  5. Heap dumps
    • In case of out of memory situations heap dumps may have been generated (java_*.hprof) in the EM installation folder. They might be needed as well
  6. Contents of the /data folder of the MoM installation
    • This contains important self-monitoring metrics for post-mortem analysis

EM Additional Diagnostics Options

To enhance the diagnostics options the following configuration changes are recommended (at least in case problems occur)

  • Run the Enterprise Manager on SAP JVM instead of the bundled Oracle / IBM JVM. This will provide more details in thread dumps, address some heap dump problems of Oracle JVM and enable a bunch of other diagnostics facilities. Make sure to use the same major Java version as present in the bundled JVM:
    • Java 6 for EM <= 9.6,
    • Java 7 for EM 9.7
    • Java 8 for EM 10.1 and higher
  • Oracle / SAP JVM: Set the JVM parameter -XX:+HeapDumpOnOutOfMemoryError

Enterprise Manager Log Files

Most relevant log files for problems with EM in sub directory logs are:

  • IntroscopeEnterpriseManager.log
  • IntroscopeEnterpriseManagerSupport.log

To get log out put with log level DEBUG in file IntroscopeEnterpriseManager.log replace line

log4j.logger.Manager=INFO, logfile


log4j.logger.Manager=DEBUG, logfile

in file file <EM_Home>/config/

On Unix platforms the file em.log in the EM home directory contains helpful information. All console output of the Java VM, including full thread dumps, goes here.

On Windows platforms the logs folder contains an additional file EMService.log. This is written by the Windows service wrapper and may contain important information in case the EM fails to start as Windows service.

Enterprise Manager Version

There are multiple ways to determine the EM version:

  1. The log file IntroscopeEnterpriseManager.log contains the full version string at each startup of the EM. Example:

  2. Solution Manager discovers the version and displays it in Basic Configuration.

Adapt Enterprise Manager Java VM parameters

Depending on the OS there are different locations where you adapt the Java VM parameters.


Windows Service:
Adapt the file <EM_HOME>/bin/EMService.conf. The properties<number> contain the Java parameters. Java heap size is specified in parameters and

Adapt the file Introscope_Enterprise_Manager.lax in the EM home directory. Property contains all JVM parameters. For Java heap size see Java parameter -Xmx and -Xms.

Recommended Java VM parameters for Enterprise Manager

In case the EM crashes with OutOfMemory (OOM) it makes sense to analyse the Garbage Collections (GC) in more detail. So setting additional java parameters
-verbose:gc -XX:+PrintGCTimeStamps -XX:+PrintGCDetails is recommended.
With java parameter -Xloggc:gc.log the GC output is redirected from file em.log to a dedicated file gc.log.

The parameter -XX:+HeapDumpOnOutOfMemoryError is usuful to trigger automatically a heap dump in case of OOM.
NOTE: heap dumps get a big as the Java heap size is configured. So make sure you have enough disk space available.

The bigger the Java heap size is configured the more it makes sense to work with parallel GCs by
setting additional java parameters -XX:+UseParNewGC -XX:+UseConcMarkSweepGC or -XX:+UseG1GC.

Start/Stop the Enterprise Manager

  1. Windows Service: Default Windows Service display name is 'Introscope Enterprise Manager'
  2. Unix: use the script in folder bin:
    • start
    • stop

Register/Unregister Windows Service

The Windows Service to start/stop the Enterprise Manager usually gets registered by default during EM installation. In case you want to register or unregister this Windows Service manually you can do that with the script <EM_HOME>/bin/EMCtrl32.bat respectively EMCtrl64.bat. The command to register the service is EMCtrl64.bat register and EMCtrl64.bat unregister to remove the Windows Service.

The Windows Service display name and other details can be set in file <EM_HOME>binEMService.conf. Changes to e.g. property wrapper.displayname modifying the default service display name 'Introscope Enterprise Manager' of an altready registered Windows Serive only take effect after unregistering and registering the Windows Service.

Other properties you may need to change e.g. if you run several EMs on the same Windows host are and wrapper.description.

Collect Thread Dumps from the Enterprise Manager

If the Enterprise Manager appears stuck it may make sense to trigger a thread dump. The procedure differs depending on the operating system and the mode it is started.

If the EM is running as service (which is normal): Open a command prompt as adminsitrator and issue the command sc control IScopeEM 255 (IScopeEM is the default name of the service). The thread dump will be appended to the service log file logs/EMService.log. For processing in any thread dump analysis tools you will have to remove the wrapper prefix added to every line.

Example output of the command:

Using jmxremote or SAP JVM is an alternative, but requires extra configuration.

If the EM is launched interactively (Introscope_Enterprise_Manager.exe) you can hit Ctrl-Break to trigger a dump. Unfortunately you get it on the console, difficult to capture.

On OS level identify the process ID of the Enterprise Manager, e.g. via the command ps -ef grep java.
Send signal 3 to this process: kill -3 pid.
The thread dump will be written to the file em.log in the EM installation directory

Collect Heap Dumps from the Enterprise Manager

If the EM crashes and you find errors like 'JAVA heap space out of memory' in the IntroscopeEnterpriseManager.log may have either configured the EM with low Java heap size (then see 'Adapt Enterprise Manager Java VM parameters' above to increase the heap size) or there could be a memory leak. For the latter heap dumps are needed for analysis. To get heap dumps in case of an OutOfMemory set the additional java parameter -XX:+HeapDumpOnOutOfMemoryError (see 'Adapt Enterprise Manager Java VM parameters' above; a restart of the EM is needed). Setting this parameter automatically a heap dump is triggered if an OutOfMemory occurs. The heap dump could consist of more than one file and is usually named java_pid<pid>.*.

In case you want to trigger heap dumps manually set java parameter -XX:+HeapDumpOnCtrlBreak. With every triggered thread dump (see 'Collect Thread Dumps from the Enterprise Manager') you then also get a heap dump.
NOTE: heap dumps get a big as the Java heap size is configured. So make sure you have enough disk space available.

Performance / Scalability / Capacity

The EM provides several self-monitoring metrics about its internal status. The metric Overall Capacity (%) is also reported for each EM in the Solution Manager Administration work center. A value of 100% means that it has reached its capacity limit. Short peaks beyond 100% are not critical. Only if the capacity is permanently substantially beyond 100% you will experience problems like missing data points, poor performance, etc. You can find this Overall Capacity (%) metric in the Introscope Investigator via this path: Superdomain -> Custom Metric Host -> Custom Metric Process -> Custom Metric Agent -> Enterprise Manager -> Overall Capacity (%).

A more detailed view is available in the Introscope Investigator tree via the following path: Superdomain -> Custom Metric Host -> Custom Metric Process -> Custom Metric Agent -> Enterprise Manager. If you select the node Enterprise Manager in the tree, the tab Overview on the right side displays eight charts on EM sanity, as shown in the screenshot. It reveals heap utilization, number of metrics and agents.

Perflog Analysis

The EM collects Metrics about itself and reports them to a file called perflog.txt under 15 second time periods. By analyzing the entries in this file, it is possible identify beforehand if the EM is becoming overloaded and avoid future issues.
To check the EM health check the Introscope Troubleshooting WIKI page.

Workstation webstart

Release Info

All known Webstart problems documented here were resolved with Introscope version 9.7 and subsequent versions. It might be easier to upgrade the Introscope Enterprise Manager and get a Webstart Workstation that works out of the box than to tweak the webstart for older versions. See SAP Notes 2534316 and 2285189. Similo: myths for mac.

The Java WebStart for the Introscope Workstation fails for higher patch levels of Java 7 and for Java 8 due to changes in the security checks of Java WebStart. In some cases the launch of the Workstation fails silently, in other cases an exception is shown.

In any case the following generic work-arounds exist:

  • Use a Workstation that is explicitly installed on the client PC Note that Enterprise Manager and Workstation version must match
  • Use the HTML-based Webview via a URL like http://xxxxx.yyy.corp:8081/webview

In addition, for the following Java patch levels work-arounds are available:

  • Java 7 Update 45 (Java 1.7.0_45) and newer: Introscope Workstation and older fail to start due to security related changes. Please see SAP Note 1565954. No action needed for Introscope 9.5.6
  • Java 7 Update 51 (Java 1.7.0_51) and newer: Additional security changes get introduced causing the Workstation to fail again. As Workaround launch the Java Control Panel (Start->All Programs->Java->Configure Java). On the Security tab leave the Security Level as “High” and add the WebStart URL to the “Exception Site List”
    Example for WebStart URL: http://xxxxx.yyy.corp:8081
  • Java 7 Update 71 (Java 1.7.0_71) and newer: Workstation WebStart client fails again. Workaround for Introscope 9.5.6: add line <property name='' value='osgi'/> to file <EM_HOME>/product/enterprisemanager/plugins/com.wily.introscope.workstation.webstart_<version>/WebContent/jnlp/workstation.jsp. The only work-around for Introscope 9.1.5 is to explicitly use Java 6, as described below in Section 'Webstart Additional Hints'.

Workstation Webstart: Expired Certificates as of March 1, 2015

Furthermore as of March 1, 2015, the CA APM Java JRE certificate has expired. This will impact all the customers who use web start client, version 9.7 and lower. Customers who initiate the workstation through the downloaded JNLP will be blocked if their security is set beyond medium. This issue is independent from issues related to individual Java Updates as listed above.


Below are options to work around this issue:

  • Option 1: If the security level is set to high or above, the level should be brought down to medium. Once the security level is set to medium, the web start client can be initiated to start the workstation.

In order to do this -> Go to Control Panel -> Java - > Security and adjust the security level.

  • Option 2: Add the web start URL to the exception site list. Once this site is added reinitiating the web start client starts the workstation.

In order to do this - > Go to Control Panel -> Java - > Security -> Click on Edit Site List and add the URL in the location box.

Webstart Additional Hints

  1. We have not found a way to launch the Workstation 9.1.5 with recent Java 7 and Java 8 versions. You can, however, have multiple JRE versions installed on the same host. In particular, you could have Java 6 installed to launch the Workstation, and at the same time use a recent Java 8 version for webstart of other applications.

    1. Use an absolute path like 'C:Program FilesJavajre6binjavacpl.exe' to launch the Java Control Panel. Disable other Java versions in tab 'Java'.
    2. Use an absolute path like 'C:Program FilesJavajre6binjavaws'http://emhost:8081/workstation to launch the Workststion.

  2. In some cases having multiple JRE/JDK versions installed might cause problems. Consider uninstalling JRE versions that you do not really need.
  3. Try launching the Webstart bypassing the browser In a command window. This isolates any potential browser add-in issues and allows to use webstart even if the browser add-in is disabled: Use a call like this:

See separate page: Introscope Push

Follow Knowledge Base Article 1824881 to classify if the missing data should be provided via Introscope.

If you come to the insight that missing metrics indeed should come from Introscope then check KBA 2921337 for troubleshooting.

Introscope agents of a certain version can connect to Introscope Enterprise Managers of the same or higher version. It is not possible to connect them to an EM with a lower version than the agent is. For more information, refer to the Introscope JAVA Agent WIKI.

Log Files

Relevant log files for problems with the BCA are:

  • from directory /usr/sap/<AgentSID>/<AgentNo>/SMDAgent/applications.config/<Release>/wily
    • IntroscopeAgent.profile
  • from directory /usr/sap/<AgentSID>/<AgentNr>/SMDAgent/temp
    • IntroscopeAgent.<SID_Instance>_server*.log
    • AutoProbe.<SID_Instance>_server*.log
  • from directory /usr/sap/SID>/<inst>/work of the managed system if it's a Netweaver java node:
    • dev_server0 (contains the actually used JVM parameters)
    • std_server*.out

If requested by SAP Development set in IntroscopeAgent.profile the property log4j.logger.IntroscopeAgent from


A restart is not required. Do not forget to reset the value back to INFO after investigating the issue.

Agent Version

The agent version can be determined via one of the following procedures:

  • Check the log file IntroscopeAgent*.log for the right agent. The agent version is dumped at every restart of the Java VM.
  • Check the Introscope Investigator tree. For each agent, the node Agent Stats contains
    • Agent build and release
    • SAP build timestamp
    • location of the agent profile that is used

Byte Code Adapter does not start

Missing CPU Metrics

The CPU node in the Investigator tree of the byte code instrumentation agent (e.g. Netweaver agent) is populated via a native library, the so-called platform monitor. There are multiple possible reasons why this node might be missing:

  • there is no platform monitor extension for all supported Netweaver platforms. As fallback you can use the OS metrics as provided by the Introscope host adapter (under node SAP Host Agent)
  • on Windows: If the user running the Java VM is not in the administrators group it must be added to the group Performance Monitor Users to obtain the privileges required to read performance data.

Missing JMX Metrics

For troubleshooting JMX metric collection in the agent you can increase logging of the JMX service by setting these two additional properties:

In general polling of particular MBeans will be switched off until the next restart of the Java VM as soon as any exception occurs for polling that MBean.

For Netweaver there is a known problem that reporting of http sessions ('Current Http Sessions') stops reporting. See SAP Note 2067705 for a fix.

Java Managed System does not start due to missing Agent.jar

If a Java Managed System has been instrumented for CA Introscope via the Java VM parameter -javaagent:/some/path/to/Agent.jar and the file Agent.jar is not accessible by the instrumented Java VM then it fails to start. Possible reasons why the file Agent.jar is not accessible:

  1. The corresponding Diagnostics Agent has been deleted before the CA Introscope instrumentation has been removed from the Java Managed System. The Java Managed System does not start anymore because the required Agent.jar in the Diagnostics Agent file system has been deleted.
  2. The managed Java VM does not have read access to the file system tree where the Introscope agent is located (e.g. user SAPService<SID> on Windows starting the SAP Netweaver system)

In the first case the instructions for uninstalling the Introscope Byte Code Agent were not followed correctly.
You can find those instructions in the Introscope Installation or Setup Guide for your Solution Manager Release.

These installation or setup guides can be found at
=> Alphabetical Index => S
=> SAP Solution Manager
=> 'your solution manager release'
=> 'one of the sections on installations'
=> 'respective Wily Introscope guide'.

In these guides, please refer to the section titled 'Uninstalling Introscope Agents'. It is recommended to use the SAP Solution Manager provided mechanism to remove the problematic properties.
In case the Diagnostics Agent was already deleted, it may be necessary to delete the properties by hand. In case of problems please create a ticket at component SV-SMG-DIA-WLY-BCA.

Known problems for Bytecode Agent

Check if Introscope Host Adapter is connected to the Enterprise Manager

Missing ABAP metrics

Log Files and Log Levels

Introscope Workstation Images For Mac Os

Relevant logfiles for problems with Introscope Host Adapter are:

  • SMDAgentApplication*.log (most content here)
  • SMDSystem*.log (in case wilyhost does not start up at all)
    They are persisted in directory /usr/sap/<SMDAgentID>/<InstanceNo>/SMDAgent/log

The log level for SMDAgentApplication.log might have to be increased to DEBUG for troubleshooting. This is done via diagnostics agent administration.

If the Introscope host adapter does not show up in the Investigator the file jvm_SMDAgent.out may also be relevant. It corresponds to IntroscopeAgent*.log of the BCA. To increase the log level for the Introscope runtime of the host adapter (in jvm_SMDAgent.out) edit the application resource 'IntroscopeSapAgent.profile' and change the property

Thread Dumps

Thread dumps for the Introscope host adapter means thread dumps for the whole diagnostics agent. They can be triggered in various ways, e.g.:

  1. Via the SAP Management Console / MMC: Right-Click on the java procees for the agent and click Dump Stack Trace
  2. On OS level (Unix): find out the process ID of the agent process and issue the command kill -3 <pid>

In any case the thread dump is written to the file std_smdagent.out in the work directory of the diagnostics agent.

Introscope Workstation Images For Mac Free