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Ielts Idioms Pdf

Ielts idioms pdf

Most Important Phrasal Verbs For Ielts Ielts Documentation

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    Transitive phrasal verbs with the particle ”out”: Alexicon-grammar analysis

    Michelle Garcia-Vega

    To cite this version:Michelle Garcia-Vega. Transitive phrasal verbs with the particle ”out”: A lexicon-grammar analysis.Southern Journal of Linguistics, 2011, 35 (1), pp.75-110. �hal-01369825�

    https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01369825https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr

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    Transitive phrasal verbs with the particle out:

    A lexicon-grammar analysis*

    Michelle Garcia-Vega

    Florida International University

    Abstract

    Using a lexicon-grammar approach developed by Maurice Gross (1992), this project involved systematically

    mapping the structural properties of over 550 transitive phrasal verbs with the particle out, PV out. The

    data is analyzed in terms of two main tables or matrices. The first table illustrates the morpho-syntactic

    properties of purely simple PV out expressions, like freak out the kid ↔ freak the kid out. The second table

    illustrates the morpho-syntactic combinations of complex PV out expressions, as in take the boxer out of the

    fight. The research shows that PV out expressions may involve up to 25 syntactic features, including N2

    promotion, as in The girl spilled the water out of the glass → The girl spilled the glass out, complex-neutral

    constructions, like The water spilled out of the glass, and reversed constructions, like The company farmed

    the oil out of the land →The company farmed the land out of oil. The research shows that these syntactic

    combinations are highly lexical in that a unique combination of features applies to individual phrasal verbs.

    1. Introduction

    Verb particle constructions or phrasal verbs, PV, have long intrigued linguists, since van Dongen (1919), Bolinger

    (1971) and Fraser (1976), and up to recent times as reflected in the works of Jackendoff (2002) and Dehé (2002). This

    article builds on recent work on phrasal verbs by Machonis (2008 & 2009), who uses a lexicon-grammar framework

    (Maurice Gross 1992 & 1994) to provide an extensive description of a full body of language data in order to draw

    conclusions. Compress files to zip mac. We constructed an exhaustive lexicon-grammar of 562 purely transitive phrasal verbs with the particle

    out, PV out, indicating up to 25 varying syntactic properties and transformations specified by plus or minus signs (cf.

    sample Tables 1-5 in this article). Even though certain verb classes show some syntactic similarities in our

    classification, it will be shown, nevertheless, that this information is highly lexical with a unique combination of

    pluses or minuses applying to individual verbs rather than to broad semantic categories.

    In constructing lexicon-grammar tables, we use elementary sentences (Gross 1996) of the type subject-verb-particle-

    essential complements, such as N0 V Part N1, where N0 indicates the subject and N1 indicates the first complement.

    All of the PV out expressions analyzed are transitive and can appear in both the continuous and discontinuous order, as

    in the following examples where the arrow (↔) indicates relative synonymy:

    (1) N0 V N1 out ↔ N0 V out N1

    Clowns totally freak Peter out ↔ Clowns totally freak out Peter1

    * I would like to thank my professor Peter A. Machonis for his inspiration and guidance throughout this project. I would also like to thank the

    audiences at the SECOL 77 conference and FIU’s 2010 linguistic colloquium for their comments and feedback.

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    In contrast to intrinsically simple expressions like (1) above, some of these PV out constructions can also be analyzed

    as complex expressions. These introduce a second complement indicated by N2, representing longer prepositional

    phrases generally by out of, signified as N0 V N1 out of N2. While simple PV out constructions may appear in both the

    continuous and discontinuous form, complex expressions can only appear in the discontinuous form.

    (2) N0 V N1 out of N2 ↔ *N0 V N1 N2 out of

    Katie took the booties out of the basket ↔ *Katie took the booties the basket out of

    All the complex constructions examined, however, have the possibility of being reduced to simple PV out phrases, in

    which case the particle can be moved.

    (3) N0 V out N1 ↔ N0 V N1 out

    Katie took out the booties ↔ Katie took the booties out

    In our lexicon grammar tables, subjects and complements were analyzed as simple NPs entailing the properties of

    human (Nhum) and non-human (N-hum) indicated by a plus or minus value in the appropriate column. The meaning

    of the PV was also included in the table under synonym. The data of 562 PV out expressions2 was divided into two

    tables: (1) simple PV out expressions of the form N0 V N1 out, consisting of 201 constructions, and (2) complex PV

    out expressions, of the forms N0 V N1 out of N2, N0 V N1 out N2, and N0 V N1 out Prep N2 –all of which can be

    reduced to the simple form, consisting of 361 constructions. The tables (c.f. sample tables 1-5) include morphological

    information on the nature of the subject and possible complements, as well as the subset of related sentences and

    transformations in the sense of Harris (1956).

    2. Simple PV out

    Section 2 briefly discusses the disambiguation and compositional status of PV out expressions. In section 2.1, it will

    be shown that much of the compositional status of PV out expressions is highly contextual. Section 2.2 presents the

    variety of transformations intrinsically simple PV out expressions exhibit showing that a unique set of features (plus or

    minus) apply to each phrasal verb and that this data is highly lexical and cannot be generalized based solely on

    semantic categories. Section 2.3 presents a sample table of the data.

    2.1 Semantic Compositionality of Simple PV out

    Bolinger (1971) was among the first to recognize that particles can contribute an aspectual or intensifying sense to

    regular verbs. Others have analyzed the compositional status of PV expressions as a semantic continuum ranging from

    fully transparent to fully idiomatic (Bolinger 1971, Fraser 1976, Dehe and Jackendoff 2002, Baldwin 2002). While

    such analyses provide a more comprehensive view of the verb particle combination, compositionality in a lexicon-

    grammar framework entails simply two distinct semantic classes defined by the column, N0 V N1, which indicates

    relative synonymy with N0 V N1 out (Machonis 2009). The following examples, where the particle out is an optional

    element, seem to imply some type of aspectual or intensifying interpretation to the simple verb and are thereby viewed

    as compositional.

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    (4) N0 V N1 ↔ N0 V N1 out

    a. Classical music mellows Max ↔ Classical music mellows Max out

    b. The boxer punched the opponent ↔ The boxer punched the opponent out

    A plus [+] in the column N0 V N1 serves to distinguish compositionally transparent PV out from idiomatic PV out

    expressions.3 In 92 of the 200 simple PV out entries examined, the particle can be deleted showing that almost half of

    these expressions are compositional. On the other hand, a negative value in the N0 V N1 column indicates the particle

    is an essential element of the verb phrase illustrating a more idiomatic PV construction. Idiomatic PV’s, such as (5),

    are those that cannot delete the particle without causing a significant change in meaning and thus must be listed in the

    lexicon as complete units (Jackendoff 2002).4 The (≠) means the expressions are not synonymous.

    (5) N0 V N1 ≠ N0 V N1 out

    a. The gangsters took the boy ≠ The gangsters took the boy out ‘kill’

    b. The mischievous students burn the professor ≠ The mischievous students burn the professor out ‘exhaust’

    In these examples although the N0 V N1 column forms an acceptable expression, as in The gangster took the boy

    meaning literally ‘to take’, they do not mean the same as the idiomatic verb plus particle combination The gangster

    took the boy out5 meaning ‘to kill’. The particle is as an essential component to the construction and the PV

    expression is consequently non-compositional.

    Deleting the particle in other idiomatic PV’s can sometimes result in an unacceptable *N0 V N1 expression altogether,

    as in (6).

    (6) *N0 V N1 → N0 V N1 out

    a. *Talented journalists will knock a story → Talented journalists will knock a story out ‘produce quickly

Most Important Phrasal Verbs For Ielts Ielts Documented

Phrasal verbs are an important part of learning the English language. Most phrasal verbs consist of two words (verb + adverb or verb + preposition) but a few consists of three words. Think of them as you would any other English vocabulary. Study them as you come across them, rather than trying t. Hi annamarie your videos are very useful and fantastic I have some example the phrase verbs you taught me In this video, I hope you help me if are correct thank you. 1 I ‘m going to practice my phrase verbs more the usual so that I can get ahead on my progress.2 I have an important appointment but my car doesn’t working I need to call off.